Top 10 Best Things to do in Modena Italy

Top 10 Best Things to do in Modena Italy

Best things to do in Modena Italy. – Modena is a nice city in north Italy and, more precisely, in Emilia-Romagna. Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 regions into which Italy is divided.

Modena is good food, beautiful architecture, and very interesting museums.

Modena is also the city of Enzo Ferrari, founder of the car manufacturer of the same name and the city of Luciano Pavarotti, the famous Opera singer.

Last but not least, we must say that Modena is the homeland of vinegar. The balsamic vinegar of Modena is a precious and appreciated ingredient worldwide.

What are the best things to do in Modena? Let’s see together.

Best Things to do in Modena Italy

What are the best things to do in Modena Italy? Here, you can find our list.

  1. Piazza Grande Modena
  2. Caffè Concerto
  3. Enzo Ferrari Museum
  4. Modena racetrack
  5. Torre Ghirlandina (Bell Tower)
  6. Municipal vinegar cellar
  7. Palazzo Ducale di Modena
  8. Pavarotti Municipal Theatre
  9. Estense Gallery
  10. Estense Ducal Garden Park
Top 10 Best Things to do in Modena Italy 1
Best Things to do in Modena Italy

Piazza Grande Modena

The Piazza Grande, with the cathedral and the city’s civic tower, is the city’s main square and is located in the historic center. Since 1997, it has been included in the Italian UNESCO World Heritage Sites list.

Caffè Concerto

The Caffé Concerto is a bar and a true restaurant in a beautiful location in the city’s center.

At the Caffè Concerto, you can taste the typical local food, choosing among many specialties. It is amazing.

The price is very good because you can choose the menu with a fixed price.

The only thing you have to consider if you go with your family is that only people over 12 are admitted.



Enzo Ferrari Museum

This museum offers the opportunity to see the beautiful Ferraris displayed like real jewels and also allows you to learn more about the world of this fantastic car.

In fact, the exhibition, among other things, allows the visitor to learn about the maintenance and restoration of classic Ferraris. This workshop restoration carefully seeks to restore its authenticity.

In addition to the classic cars on display, the visitor will also have the opportunity to see one-of-a-kind pieces handcrafted by expert craftsmen.


Enzo Ferrari Museum description and experiences

The Ferrari Museum in Modena is a true treat and honor for the Ferrari car enthusiast and anyone who likes inspiring stories.

One of the amazing things about the museum is that it is not cluttered and spread out perfectly for you to enjoy without a crowd and to be able to enjoy at any age.

It’s a fantastic family attraction make sure you purchase the family ticket if you are a family or if you’re a single person or a couple. Either way, it’s an amazing treat for everyone.

You have to know that there are two Ferrari museums: one in Modena and one in Maranello (Maranello is about 20 km from Modena). In this post “Top 10 Best Things to do in Modena Italy” we’re talking about the one in Modena.

You can arrive at the museum by car and park it in the back, then you just have to follow the signs to get there. You can also do street parking just make sure you look for the meters. 

The Enzo Ferrari Museum in Modena is a true classic car lovers’ dream, you get to see all the way from the beginning with Maserati all the way to Ferrari Formula 1 cars. And don’t forget the beautiful candy apple red F40 Ferrari, one of the most amazing Ferraris ever made and the most iconic as well.

At the Enzo Museum, there are two separate buildings. One building of these two buildings is called the Officina Meccanica Alfredo Ferrari. This building is very interesting because there it has beautiful classic cars telling the story from the beginning. You also get a chance to peer into the office life of Enzo Ferrari because you see his first office there as well.

The amazing futuristic building behind you with the yellow top and all the glass is where all of the magic is and at regular intervals, they have a short film that tells the story of Enzo Ferrari and explains how the brain came to be. 

As you walk in, there is a bistro to your left it is a bit pricey for the food, for example a small panini sandwich is about 8 Euros, but it is great for a coffee. The lunch is not a problem because the museum only takes about 1 hour and it is better to eat and taste the food in one of the good restaurants in Modena: you are in one of the best Italian cities for food!

As you walk in you’ll see the gift shop to the right-hand side, but you don’t need to worry about that yet because as you exit you walk right into it: they have many amazing Ferrari collectibles items even a steering wheel for sale.

Inside the main Auditorium, you will see a menagerie of cars, Off-roading cars sporting cars even cabriolets. You’ll even see a mock-up design of a wood and metal frame car all the way toward the back. 

As you walk down the ramp, they have a beautiful engine room all the way in the back and splitting the differences between the engines the turbo-powered, non-turbo power and so many more you get a chance to really peer into what makes a Ferrari a Ferrari.

It helps you to understand Enzo Ferrari’s thinking and the passion that goes into the vehicle. You really get a chance to embrace one of his famous quotes saying I don’t sell cars I sell engines. The cars I throw in for free since something has to hold the engines in.

If you want to, you can also get a picture inside of a new Ferrari 2022. Of course, the pictures are for sale, but if you want a memorable experience, it’s well worth it. They are about 15 euros for the small size and 20 euros for the larger size.

But what is the real Pinnacle point of the entire museum? It is being able to race a semi-pro simulation car driving machine you get 10 minutes of driving 3 of those minutes are instructions from the simulation instructor, and the other seven are you driving on a simulated racetrack you can pick a few local Italian Formula One race tracks, so it really enhances the experience even more. But be careful the cars are like you’re driving real Formula 1 cars, and be prepared to crash.

As beautiful as this museum is, it will only take you about 1 hour to 1 hour and a half the best thing to do is visit the museum early and then go and visit the sister Museum in Maranello. The museum in Maranello is a totally different experience and one that you will enjoy you can either drive there or take some of the bus accommodations that they have as well either way, enjoy the museums enjoy the Ferraris and enjoy the dream car of your life.

Modena racetrack

We put the Modena racetrack immediately after the Enzo Ferrario museum precisely because the Enzo Ferrari museum ticket allows you to have a unique experience at the Modena racetrack at an affordable price.

It allows you to enter the circuit with your car and try to drive it for 15 minutes at 35 euros. You can find updated prices and more details on the Modena Autodrome website:

Clearly, at the racetrack, you will find a professional driver who will show you the characteristics of the track and the necessary safety measures to adopt.

You must also know that the track is not always available for this type of experience; therefore, you must always check availability on the web page above.

Torre Ghirlandina (Bell Tower)

Alongside the Cathedral’s apse, with its 89.32 meters, the Ghirlandina tower, the symbol of the city of Modena, projects upwards.

Best Things to do in Modena Italy 2
Best Things to do in Modena Italy 2

This Tower was built as the bell tower for the cathedral. This tower has also played an important civic function since its origins: the ringing of its bells marked the time for life in the city.

It announced the opening of the gates in the city walls and acted as a warning for the people in situations of alarm and danger.

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Things to do in Modena Italy

Municipal vinegar cellar

Guided tours (booking required) illustrate the history of vinegar, this product of excellence famous worldwide, and tastings are offered.

Palazzo Ducale di Modena

The current Ducal Palace of Modena stands on the site once occupied by the castle built in 1291.

Modena became the capital of the Este duchy in 1598 and needed a suitable residence. Therefore in 1634, the works to build a new masterpiece palace of baroque architecture began.

Pavarotti Municipal Theatre

The Municipal Theater was inaugurated in 1841 with the name Teatro dell’Illustrissima Comunità. It has kept its beauty intact throughout its history and has undergone no significant structural transformation.

The theater was renamed and dedicated to Pavarotti, the great Modenese tenor, in October 2007, one month after his death. Under the portico of the Teatro Comunale, you can also see the statue of Luciano Pavarotti himself.

The work depicts the life-size tenor standing in the typical attitude of greeting the public after his performances: smiling and with open arms with the scarf in his left hand.

To see and savor the beauty of the theater, you can treat yourself to a cultural evening by attending one of the operas on the program. Alternatively, you can also walk past the theater to see its architecture and the statue dedicated to the Modenese tenor.

Pavarotti Municipal Theater website:

Estense Gallery

The Estense Gallery exhibits the Dukes of Este art collection inside the eighteenth-century Palazzo Dei Musei in Modena.

Estense Ducal Garden Park

Historic oasis with benches, a playground and a pond.

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The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta?

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The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta? – The history of Ancient Sparta is very famous but we may wonder: are there still ruins of Sparta?

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Ancient Sparta Ruins

Yes, there are. To find the answer, we visited the ruins of Sparta. What can you visit and what is still visible of Ancient Sparta? In this post, we are going to examine what you can see if you visit the Sparta Ruins.

Video of Ancient Sparta Ruins, Leonidas’ Tomb and the museum

Here you can find the video about Ancient Sparta Ruins, Leonidas’ Tomb and the museum. Watch the following video!

Ancient Sparta Ruins, Leonidas’ Tomb and the museum

Ruins of Sparta

Ancient Sparta was very important in its times but this greatness was lost in the past. When you visit the ruins of Sparta, you don’t feel it. The area is nice because it’s on a hill and you can enjoy walking through a lot of trees and the view around you.

Anyway, the ruins of Ancient Sparta are not well preserved. The best ruins you can visit in Ancient Sparta are the ones of the Ancient Theatre. That’s why we start our tour at the Theatre.

The Theatre of Ancient Sparta

The ancient theatre of Sparta is situated at the southern slope of Acropolis Hill. Ancient authors confirm the existence of a theatre in the city of Ancient Sparta since the 5th century BC. It’s closely connected with the celebration of religious ceremonies. It is not confirmed that it was founded in the same position as the one visible to modern visitors.

The Theatre of Ancient Sparta
The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta?

The main theatre had ten staircases and nine bleachers, whereas the upper part of the theatre (epitheatron) had seventeen staircases with sixteen bleachers.

The theatre had a cavea of 141 m in diameter and was one of the biggest theatres in Peloponnese. It had a large scene building (skene), an acting area (proskenion) and also a U-shaped orchestra.

ancient sparta theatre
The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta?

By the end of the 1st century AD, the theatre was furnished with a monumental marble building of the Corinthian order, the erection of which was founded by Emperor Vespasian.

ancient sparta theatre and view
The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta?

The theatre was in use by the end of the 3rd to the beginning of the 4th century AD. By that time, the Late Roman Fortification had been erected, which incorporated the skene’s west wall. However, after a period of abandonment, a Byzantine settlement was established at the theatre area (10th to 14th century AD).

The Agora of Ancient Sparta

The monument known as the “Agora” was excavated during the 1960s by the Greek archaeologist Chrysanthos Christou. He revealed the southwest inner corner of a large stoa. The walls were constructed from large porous stone blocks in the polygonal style. The upper part of the walls as well as the inner walls forming small rooms within the portico. Which differ as they are made of limestone in a pseudo-isodomic way.

The stoa is located to the north of the “Round Building” in the Agora area. Due to the adjacent west hill’s slope, it probably had two floors on the southeast side and a single floor at the northwest. The building also served as a retaining wall.

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The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta?

There were foundations of houses and construction from the Byzantine period to the east and north of the building. During this time, additional construction and repairs were conducted at the stoa.

According to Christou, the stoa was built in the 4th or 3rd century BC and underwent alterations in the 2nd century BC. There is evidence confirming the operation and use of the building up to the 3rd century AD. Inside the building, a large bronze statue of Julia Aquilia Severn (3rd century AD) was found.

The monument has been associated with the Persian Stoa, the building that impressed Pausanias during his visit to the Agora of Sparta.

In the Persian Stoa, statues of captive Persians supported the roof instead of columns. According to some scholars, this monumental stoa was part of a larger complex of two-storey porticos. That complex defined the Agora area at the southwest.

The “round” Building

The “round” Building was essentially configured around a natural low hill. It’s a construction of a heavy retaining wall that followed the contour of the mound. The wall consisted of a three-stepped base upon which rested tiers of a large conglomerate stone. Bands of marble plaques were placed between the tiers. The inner part of the imposing curved wall consisted of large unworked stones.

The round Building ancient sparta ruins
The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta?

This retaining wall, along with the natural mound of earth, created a large platform on the hill’s upper surface, which also hosted several practices and structures throughout antiquity.

The structures on the top of the hill are partly preserved. Their surface was artificially leveled and contained holes carved into natural bedrock, part of a marble statue base of the Roman period and twenty-two rectangular blocks of porous stone.

At the northwest and higher part of the summit, a wall was revealed carved into the natural bedrock. This enabled access to the plateau with the colonnade. A group of early Christian graves and a sacrificial deposit were uncovered at the south side of this summit.

The identification of the monument is problematic. Among those proposed, the most favored identification has been that of the “circular building” of Epimenides containing statues of Zeus and Aphrodite Olympia (ca. 600 BC).

Scholars have also suggested the monument could be the Skias. The Skias is a place for public and musical performances built by Theodoros of Samos (mid-6th century BC).

The new evidence, which came to light during the current project, suggests an early date of the monument. Probably of the Archaic period (late 7th to early 6th century BC). That includes a reconstruction and an extensive repair having taken place around the 1st century BC.

The Byzantine church at the round Building

The church is located on the south slope of Acropolis Hill. It’s built at the western edge of the retaining wall of the “Round Building”.

It is an almost square building. The entrance of the church was probably located in the middle of the west wall. There is evidence of another door on the north side of the same wall. The building’s exterior sidewalls extended further to the west, but their original length cannot be determined.

The church walls have been revealed and can be attributed with certainty to the time of its construction. They are made of rubble with broken bricks at the joints and mortar covering the stones’ outlines. Traces of mortar in contact with the northern part of the middle apse reveal the church floor’s level. Faded traces of painted decoration are preserved on the inner side of the north wall of the church.

According to the current state of research, the church may be dated to the Middle Byzantine period.

The so-called “ST.NIKON S” Basilica

The basilica was demarcated to the north and south by an enclosure wall. Is located some meters to the east of the theatre.

The church is a three-aisled basilica with three-sided apses to the east and a narthex to the west. The aisles were separated by columns resting on high bases. The narthex and the nave were communicating through a large opening (tribelon). Smaller openings provided access to the side aisles.

The tripartite sanctuary is of unique architectural interest. The main sanctuary is separated from the bipartite rooms next to it (parabemata). Walls separate it in the middle of which a semi-circular niche with a passage was formed. At the middle apse, there was a semi-circular area with seats (synthronon). The bishop and the priests used those seats during the ceremonies.

Between the synthronon and the wall of the apse there is an ambulatory. It’s a corridor to facilitate the movement of the priests in the sanctuary during the Divine Liturgy.

There is no secure evidence for the time of the monument’s construction. Its dating ranges from the second half of the 6th century to the 7th century AD.

Sanctuary of Athena CHALKIOIKOS in Ancient Sparta

The remains of the Sanctuary of Athena Chalkioikos. The longest and most important sanctuary in the area of the Acropolis, are located above the Roman theatre.

The earliest archaeological finds date from the Mycenaean period. The cult of Athena on the Acropolis began in the 8th century BC. The sanctuary was abandoned in the 4th century AD and houses were built in its place.

The temple of Athena originally belonged to the kome Pitane. Eventually, the Athena of the Acropolis became a patron goddess (Poliouchos). The name Chalkioikos (of the Bronze or Brazen House) most probably results from the bronze plaques bearing mythological scenes.

A few remains of the Sanctuary of Athena Chalkioikos are still preserved. The south wall consists of roughly dressed conglomerate stones. It forms an angle at its east part with another wall of the same construction. The east wall of the sanctuary is revealed further north.

The marble torso of a hoplite known as “Leonidas” was also found in the sanctuary area. In the Archaeological Museum of Sparta, there is a statue. The sculpture is of the Severe Style. It’s a work of a Laconian workshop, possibly part of a statue group assigned to the sanctuary.

The Archaic Stoa

The remains of a portico (stoa) were uncovered during the British School’s excavation at Athens in 1924-1925.

The south wall of the sanctuary of Athena Chalkioikos and the ancient theater surround them. It consisted of a wall of 11m. long forming the north side and a return to the west 3.50m. long.

Five poros blocks are forming the south side of the monument. A shallow sinking is thought to carry a small base for a wooden column on the upper surface. The remains of a Roman building, which intersects the stoa’s north wall, are preserved further south.

The British School’s excavation at the site brought to light a considerable amount of Geometric pottery and potsherds dated until the Roman times, spearheads, iron obeloi, various bronze objects, terracotta figurines, bone artifacts, etc.

The late Roman fortification wall

The late roman fortification wall surrounds Acropolis Hill and the plateau of Palaiokastro. It had towers and gates, is a strong construction made of rubble, bricks, many blocks and architectural members from earlier buildings of the Acropolis and the Agora.

ancient sparta The late Roman fortification wall
The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta?

Leonidas’ tomb

Not very far from Ancient Sparta ruins, but in modern Sparta, you can find what probably is the tomb of the famous king Leonidas.

The Unforgettable Ancient Sparta. Are still there ruins of Sparta?

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Top 7 beautiful Things to do in Bardolino Lake Garda Italy: not only wine

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Things to do in Bardolino Lake Garda Italy: not only wine. Bardolino Lake Garda is a very nice Italian town. Lake Garda is in northern Italy.

Bardolino Lake Garda is famous for wine but not only. Bardolino has a beautiful lakeside promenade as well as a very characteristic center. This and much more make the days spent in Bardolino very pleasant.

In this post, we also insert a collection of videos from Bardolino Lake Garda

Top 7 things to do in Bardolino Lake Garda?

Here are the most beautiful things to see in Bardolino Lake Garda. The top 7 things to do in Bardolino Lake Garda:

  1. The barrel symbol of Bardolino on the lakefront
  2. The lakefront
  3. The historical center
  4. The beach
  5. Sunset
  6. The Ferris wheel
  7. The surroundings

Before examining every single point of our list of what to see in Bardolino, let’s have a nice virtual walk together here in Bardolino thanks to the following video!

Content guide

00:00 Intro
00:25 Wheel area lakeside walk by day
04:23 Wine Barrel Bardolino Lake Garda Italy
06:52 Bardolino lakeside walk by day
09:40 Wood bridge & colorful boats
11:40 am Boat on the lake & TimeTable
12:20 Bardolino city center by day
14:13 Bardolino lakeside walk by day
15:19 Sunset in Bardolino Lake Garda Italy
22:15 Bardolino city center and shops in the evening
27:25 Beautiful lakeside walk after the sunset
28:50 Bardolino Wine Barrel at the sunset
29:15 Bardolino Ferris wheel illuminated
30:00 Bardolino lakeside walk by night
35:10 Suggested videos

Text of the video:

Hi everybody, we are in Bardolino on Lake Garda. This beautiful town is undoubtedly one of my favorites among those on Lake Garda.

What do I like about Bardolino? The beautiful walk along the lakeside, the center with the shops, and the wide beach.

I also love to admire the sunset: the sun that gradually hides behind the mountains, the beautiful sky colors, and the lights of Bardolino reflecting on the lake.

This is why I invite you to watch this video in its half where you see the sunset and in the final part where you see the lights of Bardolino reflected in the lake water.

The big wine barrel in front of us is the giant wine barrel with the words “I love Bardolino”. You also saw it at the beginning of the video.

Why a wine barrel?

Have you ever heard about the Bardolino wine?

Here’s why!

You can then go inside the barrel and get a unique memory picture with Lake Garda in the background.

Let’s continue our walk now!

You can come here to Bardolino for several reasons: to relax, for a good aperitif or for a walk, but Bardolino can also be your starting point to reach other beautiful places on Lake Garda by boat.

Continuing the walk in this direction you arrive at the beach.

Now let’s enjoy quietly the sunset and our evening walk.

1. The barrel symbol of Bardolino on the lakefront

The barrel is a beautiful attraction for all visitors to Bardolino. You can find it on the lakefront not far from the Bardolino Ferris wheel. You can go inside the barrel and take a nice souvenir photo.

What makes the picture in the barrel particularly beautiful is in addition to its shape and the inscription of the place, the fact that the opening is made in the shape of a heart. In this way, you can be immortalized inside the barrel in the shape of a heart with Lake Garda as a background.

Watch the following video and don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel if you haven’t already! Click here to subscribe!

For a nice photo, it’s best to have your photo taken in the morning. The big problem with where this barrel has been placed is that it has the light behind it for most of the day making it difficult to get a perfect shot.

2. Lakefront Bardolino Lake Garda

We offer you a virtual walk along the lakefront in Bardolino Gardasee in the summer. We see the lakefront and the most characteristic places of this town on Lake Garda.

As you can see, the lakeside walking way is nice thanks to the wooden planks placed along the way and the colorful flowers.

View of Bardolino Lake Garda

From the barrel of Bardolino, we followed the lakefront and now we are slightly outside the center of this locality. From here you can clearly see the profile of this city and the pleasant comings and goings of tourist boats.

The following video from the “Tripilare Moments” series shows you a beautiful view of Bardolino and its marina. We also observe the boat that sails on the lake and arrives at its destination.

Of course, a boat that comes and a boat that goes;). Here in the following video (Bardolino Gardasee 2020 Bardolino Lago di Garda boat) the departure of the boat.


Here in Bardolino, we admire a beautiful sunset over the lake with a fountain that takes water directly from Lake Garda and adds beauty to this scenery.

We are in the spring of 2021, and here in Bardolino, we no longer see the Ferris wheel that characterized this magnificent location on Lake Garda in recent seasons. On the other hand, we have this fountain directly on the lake. Watch the following video!

3. The historic center of Bardolino

The historic center is very interesting to explore for various reasons. The center of Bardolino is full of shops, restaurants, historic buildings and also has surprisingly unique corners.

4. Bardolino beach

Bardolino is a fairly privileged location on Lake Garda as it has a beautiful beach. Furthermore, the beach is slightly moved from the center but easily reachable on foot.

In fact, we keep our direction walking along the lakefront of Bardolino and in a few minutes, we arrive at the beach.

5. Sunset in Bardolino Lake Garda

Watching the sunset in Bardolino is definitely one of the things to do before dinner. Relaxing on a bench watching the sun go down and then admiring the colors of the horizon is very beautiful.

Watch the following video with accelerated speed shooting “Sonnenuntergang Bardolino Gardasee 2020 Lago di Garda Bardolino”.

Returning to the center we also have the opportunity to admire the arrival of the boat with the background of the sky-colored by the sunset.

6. Ferris wheel

The Ferris wheel quickly became a Bardolino must. It is particularly beautiful and fascinating in the evening when it lights up with 100 colors.

Things to do in Bardolino Lake Garda Italy
Things to do in Bardolino Lake Garda Italy Ferris wheel

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Things to do in Sirmione Italy Lake Garda: 1 Amazing Town!

Italy Lake garde sirmione in winter castle scaled

Sirmione is on Lake Garda, Italy and it is really an amazing town. What are the things to do in Sirmione? Let’s see together!

Sirmione things to do

In Sirmione you can:

  1. Visit the center of the town where there are many nice shops
  2. Walk along the Lake
  3. Visit the beautiful castle
  4. Enjoy the food and especially one of the enormous ice cream!

Sirmione Italy in Winter

Sirmione can surprise you in every season. Sirmione in winter is really worth to be visited. You should stay in Sirmione till the night when the castle gets magically illuminated. Watch the video!

Lake Garda Sirmione in winter

Sirmione Castle

We are in Sirmione Italy Lake Garda. One of the most beautiful things you can visit here is the Sirmione castle. Sirmione Castle dates back to the second half of 1300. Sirmione Castle is not only interesting for its history, on the contrary! Sirmione castle is magnificent because you can go up to its highest tower and have a magnificent view of Lake Garda and Sirmione from above.

Lake Garda Sirmione Castle

Sirmione Ice Cream

In Italy, there are many places where you can have good ice cream. In Sirmione is not only good but also enormous!

Sirmione Italy Lake Garda ice cream

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The Remarkable and Ancient Epidaurus Theater

The Remarkable Epidaurus Theater 3 scaled

The Remarkable and Ancient Epidaurus Theater – For many peoples, the main reason to visit the Archaeological Site of the Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus is the Epidaurus Theater.

The Epidaurus Theater is the best-preserved monument in the Sanctuary of Asklepios.

Video of the Epidaurus Theater

Before continuing to read this post, watch the following video to see how the Epidaurus Theater is!

The Remarkable and Ancient Epidaurus Theater

Let’s consider some information about the Epidaurus Theater!

How old is the Epidaurus Theater?

The Epidaurus Theater was erected at the end of the 4th century B.C.

Who built the theater of Epidaurus?

According to the ancient traveler Pausanias (2nd century A.D.), it was the work of the architect Polykleitos, who also built the Tholos in the same Sanctuary.

The Remarkable Epidaurus Theater
The Remarkable and Ancient Epidaurus Theater

How many people could the original Theatre of Epidaurus seat?

The auditorium of the Theatre the koilon or cavea, consists of two unequal parts, divided by a horizontal walkway known as the diazoma. The lower part is divided by 13 radiating staircases into 12 wedge-shaped segments, the kerkides or cunei, with 34 rows of seats each. At the upper part of the cavea 23 radiating passages divide it into 22 wedge-shaped segments with 20 rows of seats.

To each segment of the lower part correspond two segments of the upper part. The seats of the lowest row were provided with backrests and used as “prohedriae” (front seats of honour); similarly shaped were the seats of the upper part’s first row. Uphill pathways outside the Theatre led on both sides to the horizontal passage which divided the upper from the lower part of the cavea.

It is estimated that the Epidaurus Theater could accommodate 12,000 spectators.

What is remarkable about the theater at Epidaurus?

Epidaurus Theater is a characteristic example of Hellenic theatres’ tripartite structure (orchestra – cavea – stage building). Its original form remained intact in Roman times, during which most Greek theatres underwent major changes. The floor of the circular orchestra (diameter 20 m) is beaten earth. It is outlined in stone, while at its center, a circular base of an altar, the thymele, is preserved. A walkway surrounds the orchestra on the lower level, serving as a drain for rainwater.

The scene (stage building) in front of the orchestra and the cavea served the needs of the actors and had a parallel use as a storage room for theatrical equipment.

The scene building was composed of

  1. a rectangular oblong hall with two smaller square rooms on each side,
  2. a proscenium (stage), on whose facade was fixed panels representing the setting of each play,
  3. two ramps, one on each side, which provided access to the roof of the proscenium for the actors, and
  4. an upper storey of the scene building, of which no evidence has been preserved.

Scholars estimate that the total height of the stage building was 7.60 m. Spectators entered the Epidaurus Theater through two impressive gates on both sides of the stage building, between it and the lower part of the cave’s retaining wall of the cavea. The seats of the cavea were made out of local grey at reddish hard limestone, while for the stage building, a soft yellow limestone was used.

The cavea was constructed at the end of the 4th century B.C., while the stage building was modified during the 2nd century B.C. A characteristic feature of the Theatre was (and still is) its excellent acoustics. It had essentially to do with its design. The creation of the circular shape of the cavea was based on three centers. The eight central cunei corresponded to a circumference which had as center the center of the orchestra.

The two lateral cunei were designed with different centers, which lay further away from the orchestra’s center, providing a larger radius and, consequently, a larger circle. Besides its contribution to acoustics, this “opening” on the edges of the cave allowed a better view of those sitting in the lateral cunei.

What was the Theatre of Epidaurus used for?

The Theatre of the Sanctuary was closely connected to the cult of Asklepios.

During the festivals held in honor of the god, athletic games, musical and dramatic contests also took place. The latter was undoubtedly housed in the Theatre, where most probably deep-rooted ceremonies were closely connected with the cult.

Why is the Theatre at Epidaurus still famous?

Today theatrical plays are again performed in the Epidaurus Theater during the summer (Epidauros festival). The Theatre was excavated in 1881 by P. Kavvadias, who then carried out partial restorations. Restoration works by An. Orlandos took place in the monument in the years 1954-1963.

He proceeded then to a reconstruction of the proscenium, which was later removed. The Committee for the Conservation of the Epidauros Monuments restored the western parodos gate, the last upper western cuneus (1988-1999) and the ancient drains (1992-2007). A third program includes restoration works in the cavea and the stage building.

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Ancient Corinth: exciting day trips from Athens

ancient corinth greece scaled

Ancient Corinth is a very good day trip from Athens. From Athens it takes about 1 hour and 15 minuted by car. Ancient Corinth is worthy of a visit for several reasons.

Firstly it’s very interesting in trying to understand the life in the this rich city. It was a very multicultural city because of the Corinth Canal. It’s true it wasn’t navigable till the end of the 1800 so ships had to be transported to the other side and they prefered this option rather than navigate all around the Peloponnese Region. You can see how the Corinth Canal is now, watching the video below:

Ancient Corinth is also linked with the Apostle Paul who lived and preached in the city for several time.

In order to enjoy more the visit we examine a few information about the Ancient Corinth.

What are the characteristics of the Ancient Corinth? What was life like there? You’ll discover it while reading this post.

Outside the walls of Ancient Corinth

Ancient Corinth covered a range of 900 km2 because there wasn’t only the main city but also many smaller settlements.

Already from the 8th c. B.C., it was a rich and a powerful city-state especially due to two ports:

  1. At Lechaion in the Corinthian Gulf
  2. At Kenchreai from the side of the Saronic Gulf

Ancient Corinth and its reign


The eastern region of Corinthia was relatively underpopulated. The most important settlement of the region must have been Solygeia, close to the modern village Galataki.


The most northern settlement of Corinthia was Krommyon, close to the modern village Ayoio Theodoroi. According to myth, this is where Theseus killed the dangerous sow, Phaia.

Corinthian Identity

Corinth consisted of dozens of settlements, small and large. But what did their residents have in common?

These people drew their common descent from the Dorians. And of course, they shared a common language and alphabet.

Ancient Corinth was built at the foot of the Acrocorinth, a majestic hill, dominating the landscape.

The home’s life in Ancient Corinth

In ancient Greece private buildings were usually humble structures unlike many public magnificent constructions.

Households were run by women. They were responsible for raising their children and supervising the slaves, who were given the heaviest duties in the house.

Men were usually absent. mainly occupied with political and professional engagements.

Visiting the Ancient Corinth you easily understand how the women’s habits were very similar to ours. In the museum you can see face care sets, such as profumes and cosmetics, hair accessories and eyebrow tweezers.

Gods Venerating And Heroes

The Corinthians worshiped Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Demeter, Kore, Hera and Poseidon. Hero cult was a distinctive aspect of ancient Greek religious life. 

Heroes, men who had showed remarkable activity during their lifetime, were honored after their death with rituals performed at their tombs or at an open-air sanctuary. Heroes’ sanctuaries were built along side roads or over older graves.

A temple dedicated to Apollo

The Temple of Apollo is the archaeological site biggest monument. The temple was built in the 6th c. B.C., when Corinth was at its zenith, on the site of an earlier temple. It was constructed from the local poros limestone.

The temple is in Doric order and originally had six columns at each end and fifteen along each side. Notable characteristics of its archaic date include the great length of the temple relative to its width, the large monolithic columns, and the squat, widely flaring capitals. Although most of this mid-6th century B.C. building has been destroyed, the bedrock preserves cut-tings made to receive the foundation blocks and thus allows a reconstruction of the temple’s plan.

temple dedicated to Apollo ancient corinth

The main part of the temple (sekos) was split into two non-communicating rooms. The roof was decorated with colorful architectural elements.

The interior of the temple consists of a porch at either end and a long central part (the cella) divided into two rooms by a cross wall. The traditional reconstruction of the plan makes this cross wall a solid wall and provides access to the western room of the cella through the western door.

The seven standing columns of the Archaic temple are one of the most prominent landmarks of Corinth.

The Acrocorinth: The sanctuary of Demeter and Kore

Demeter and her daughter, Kore or Persephone, were worshiped in a large sanctuary on the northern slope of the Acrocorinth. 

In the 4th c. B.C., a small theater was carved into the rock. Three small temples were also built in the Roman Period.

Odeum & theater of Ancient Corinth

The theater was a place in which dramatic and musical events were staged. In the roman period staged fighting was added.

The theater has several phases. The original structure was built late in the 5th c. B.C. and had permanent seats but only a wooden stage building.

This was supplemented with a new orchestra and stage structure in the Hellenistic period. 

In later antiquity theatrical tastes changed and the orchestra was converted into a gladiatorial arena.

Ancient Corinth and Cristianity

Ancient Corinth is also important because is linked with apostle Paul’s or Apostle of the Nations. Paul lived and preached in Corinth. When you visit the ancient Corinth you can also see the famous Bema.

ancient Corinth

This was likely the tribunal were Paul was brought for judgment before the proconsul Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus. He was accused of illegal proselitism and they brought him in the tribunal or bèma.

Because of its position the bema was used to speak to the crowd. Not only the Ancient Corinth has a bema. In the ancient greek cities it was in fact common to meet in front to a Bema.


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What is Montmartre Paris famous for? 3 things you should’t miss!

montmatre paris artists scaled

Montmartre Paris – In the Northern part of Paris there’s the famous neighborhood of Montmartre, also known as the the painter’s neighborhood. Montmartre enjoys considerable fame thanks to the illustrious artists who lived here such as Van Gogh, Toulouse-Lautrec and Picasso.

You should dedicate half a day to Montmartre Paris in order to enjoy the atmoshere and because it’s not very close to the Eiffel Tower. How far is Montmartre from the Eiffel Tower? It takes less than a hour to get to Montmatre but at least 40 minutes by train.

It’s really worthy to visit Montmartre Paris. So what should you see in the Montmartre Paris area? In this post you’ll find 3 things you should’t miss!

What to see in Montmartre Paris

1 – The Basilica of the Sacre Coeur

The particularity of this neighborhood is that it is on a hill. On top of this hill there’s the Basilica of the Sacre Coeur. What makes this Basilica so famous besides its position it is the stone with which it’s made. It has in fact a very light color limestone.

paris sacre coeur montmartre paris

It is easily the first thing you see in the Montmartre area because once out of the subway one of the first things you see is a flight of stairs. You can get to the top of the hill by walking on this flight of stairs. On the top there is the Basilica.

When you arrive near the Basilica you can admire and appreciate all the details of this monument. It has the peculiarity of not retaining the smog. For this reason the rain can clean the Basilica so the Basilica is shinier after a rain.

The Basilica of the Sacre Coeur is also famous because it appears 2 times in the movie “The Fabulous Destiny of Amelie”.

From the square under the Basilica you can admire Paris from above. This is a wonderful balcony on the city, a nice surprise for the tourists visiting the Basilica.

Montmartre Paris

Everything gets even better if you enjoy the view tasting one of the excellent Macarons bought in one of the shops of the area.

2 – The square of the artists

Next to the Basilica of the Sacre Coeur, there’s the famous square of the artists. This is the square where you can find painters and other artists who expose and sell their works. If you want you can also ask them to make you a portrait. Thanks to them the square is more colorful and characteristic.

Montmartre Paris painter's neighborhood

Very enjoyable is also walking through the central streets of Montmartre. You’ll noticed many characteristic restaurants and shops that contribuite to create the unique atmosphere of Montmartre.

What is Montmartre Paris famous for? 3 things you should't miss! 3

3 – Visit the Montmartre Neighborhood

After visiting the Basilica of Sacre Coeur and the square of the artists you can visit something more of the neighborhood. You can visit it on foot but it’s much better if you take the touristic train.

You can get it in the Basilica square. The ticket costs only a few euros and it’ll bring you in all around Montmartre Paris. You’ll pass near the most famous areas of Montmartre. For example it’ll pass in front of the cimitery where are placed the tombs of some famous people who lived in Montmartre.

montmatre paris artists

You should take the touristc train if you want to see Montmartre Paris better without walking too much. You can also see the famous Moulin Rouge safely. You shouldn’t go in the street of the Moulin Rouge on foot because the area it doesn’t seem so safe.

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Treasury of Atreus: the Legendary Tomb of Agamemnon

Treasury of Atreus the Legendary Tomb of Agamemnon scaled

Greece Mycenae. Treasury of Atreus: the Legendary Tomb of Agamemnon. The Tholos or ‘Beehive’ tomb dubbed the ‘Treasury of Atreus’ or the Tomb of Agamemnon is one of the most splendid monuments of Mycenaen architecture.

Let’s see something about it so you can appreciate more your visit.


This tomb is incredibly large and what makes it amazing is how it was made. It has been preserved down to our days, in fact it is just as it was originally made. Some details could go unnoticed but with a more detailed examination we understand the purpose.

This applies for example to the empty triangle above the entrance door. This triangle was used in case of earthquakes to keep the structure intact.

Another extraordinary detail that strikes our imagination is the stone block always placed above the entrance. This is in fact a single huge and very heavy block placed at a considerable height. One wonders how they got it. Maybe with rollers? In any case, it must not have been easy.

We understand the size of the Treasury of Atreus by comparing the size of the door with a person placed at the entrance. In this comparison, the person is tiny.
Just think that when you go outside on top of the monument it seems to go up a hill. This becomes an observation point for the surrounding landscape.

Treasury of Atreus

The Treasury of Atreus was built between 1350 and 1250 BC, it consists of a domos or passage, stomion or entrance, tholos or vaulted chamber and a smaller side chamber.

Distinctive features of its construction are the use of megalithic elements in the entrance such as jambs and lintel and its carefully coated masonry.

The monumental facade was decorated with a variety of materials. Parts of the sculpted decorations are today in the British Museum in London and in the National Archeological Museum in Athens.

The tomb was found robbed, like all the tholos tombs, and there is no information on either the grave goods or the burials it once housed. It was never buried by earth and remained always visible, attracting the attention of ancient and later travellers.


Watch the following video! Then see what I described above about the Treasury of Atreus

Treasury of Atreus the Legendary Tomb of Agamemnon inside


The Treasury of Atreus is located very close to the archaeological site of the ruins of Mycenae. The visit to the Treasury of Atreus does not take long. Therefore it is easy to visit on the same day both the Treasury of Atreus and the ruins of ancient Mycenae with its attached museum.

In addition, the ticket you buy at the Treasury of Atreus is also valid for Mycenae. So don’t make the mistake of buying the same ticket twice!

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Bellagio Italy Lake Como in Winter. 1 famous & little town


Bellagio Italy Lake Como Winter. In a beautiful day we have visited Bellagio Lake Como. It’s still winter but the shining sun helps us to enjoy the day. Many hotels are closed but the restaurants are opened and we can really enjoy the food (see the pictures at italian food lake como bellagio). To see better Bellagio Lake Como in winter we take the boat.

bellagio italy lake como

Video Bellagio Italy

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